Understanding Diabetes Types : Symptoms and Complications

Diabetes is a condition that damage the body’s capacity to process blood glucose, also called blood sugar.

  • In type 1 diabetes the beta cells of the pancreas are destroyed by the immune system and so no insulin is produced.
  • In type 2 diabetes the pancreas produces insulin but target cells do not take up glucose.

Both types of diabetes when blood glucose levels rise cells do not take up the additional glucose and so blood glucose remains high.


Signs and symptoms.

People can have different symptoms with diabetes common symptoms include:

  • Feeling very hungry
  • Feeling very thirsty
  • Urinating often
  • Fatigue
  • Blurry vision
  • Slow healing of wounds

People with type 1 diabetes may also experience weight loss. Symptoms of type 1 diabetes usually develop suddenly they may make a person feel very ill.

On the other hand symptoms of type 2 diabetes usually develop slowly they may
be mild enough so they are hard to notice, some people have no symptoms.

Type 2 Diabetes.

Type 2 diabetes is a sign in which your blood sugar level is too high. Carbohydrates are substances your body uses to make energy after you eat food that contains carbohydrates.

When the blood reaches your pancreas it detects the high amount of sugar in your blood, normally this causes your pancreas to put a chemical called insulin into your bloodstream. The insulin reduces the amount of sugar in your blood to a healthy level.

How does insulin do this: As the blood moves through your body the insulin and sugar exit the bloodstream into your tissues to reach your cells.

Most cells have structures on their surfaces called insulin receptors when insulin flows by it attaches to the receptors, the insulin acts as a key in a lock to open up the cell.

If you have type-2 diabetes your cells don’t respond to insulin as they should this is called insulin resistance.

When this happens your insulin cannot unlock the cells to let sugar in because the locks or insulin receptors are missing or aren’t working. As a result, sugar is locked out of your cells

In response to the high blood sugar levels your pancreas makes more and more insulin the overworked cells in your pancreas, try to keep up but they slowly lose their ability to make enough insulin these problems may lead to the symptoms of type 2 diabetes.

Type 1 Diabetes.

When someone has type 1 diabetes it means two things:

  • The first is that their body cannot create insulin.
  • The second is that their body cannot control the amount of insulin in their blood.

This means their body isn’t as energized as it should be they need to get insulin every day by getting small painless shots are from an insulin pump.

kids with type 1 diabetes also need to check the amount of glucose in their blood every day. If the number is higher than 120 don’t worry all it means is that you need to take some insulin if the number is lower than 80 it just means you need to eat something depending on this number they may also need to eat more snacks during the day and take insulin especially before lunchtime.

They should also take care to get plenty of exercises and see their doctor regularly to make sure they are in tip-top shape.

Complications of Diabetes.

Diabetic ketoacidosis

If your high blood sugar level isn’t treated life-threatening complications can result for example you can become severely ill with a condition called diabetic ketoacidosis. It’s more common in people with type 1 diabetes.

Here’s how it happens because you have little or no insulin in your blood your cells can’t get the sugar they need for energy, as a result, your body turns to fats and proteins for energy.

As your body breaks down the fats certain substances known as ketone bodies, build up in your blood this results in a condition called ketosis. If ketones build-up to dangerously high levels in your blood you may develop diabetic ketoacidosis or DKA. This may
result in coma or death.


If your blood sugar level drops too low you may experience a serious complication of diabetes called hypoglycemia. A common way this can happen is by taking too much diabetic medication or not eating too much insulin or oral diabetic medication can cause too much sugar to go into your cells, then your blood sugar level drops down too low.

Certain organs such as the brain need a constant energy supply to work properly because the brain’s main source of energy is sugar it’s the first organ affected by lower sugar levels. When your brain cells called neurons don’t get enough sugar they start to malfunction.

Symptoms such as nervousness, shakiness, and confusion can result if your blood sugar keeps dropping, your brain does not have enough energy to work properly this can result in seizures or diabetic coma.


Best home remedies to control sugar levels: Diabetic Diet